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Budapest Parliament

Sightseeing Tours:Visiting the Hungarian Parliament

"The motherland does not have a house." Thus wrote bitterly Mihály Vörösmarty, one of the greatest poets of the Hungarian heroic age of bourgeois civilization, in 1846. Indeed, through the hundreds of years that the grandsons of the conquering chieftain Árpád ruled the country the diet didn't have a regular house. But there was no need for it, as they - the prelates, the barons, the nobles and the burghers - were "the country". Where they walked, judged, debated - that was the "motherland". Since the time of St. Stephen, Hungary's legendary founder, the greatest turn of the wheel in Hungarian history occurred in Vörösmarty's generation - the Age of Reform and the Revolution of 1848 that followed. Spurred by economic need, social unrest and the flowering of culture, the hundredthousands of privileged in society and the millions in the lower classes coalesced into a historical community, the Hungarian nation. And this nation, now being consciously formed by the great men of the age - István Széchenyi, Miklós Wesselényi, Ferenc Deák, Lajos Kossuth, Ferenc Kölcsey, Sándor Pet?fi -, was very much in need of a physical home. As a counterweight to the royal palace rising high on Buda Hill, the Pest side of the Danube was chosen to symbolize that Hungary's destiny lay with popular democracy and not with royal whim.

The "House of the Motherland" Is Built

Over the past thousand years the Hungarian diet has held its sessions from Sopron to Szabolcs, from Besztercebánya to Szeged, from Nagyszombat to Rákos field, and since the l8th century primarily in Pozsony, today known as Bratislava. In July 1843, the reform opposition tabled an old proposal that the legislature should be moved to the new capital, Pest-Buda. In September a parliamentary commission took the matter in hand, and after several fruitful discussions, the future Minister himself, Gábor Klauzál, declared that "because there is a place, the dream will become a reality". But in the ensuing decades only design competitions were realized where often not even prizes were awarded. By the time, forty years later, a law concerning the construction of a parliament was finally passed, the concept of parliament had changed dramatically. Not only was a completely different physical home envisioned but the notion of popular representation and the government responsible to it had a completely different sound as well by the end of the century. The competition announced in 1882 was won by Imre Steindl (1839-1902), a professor at the Technical University.

Like others of his generation he thought that problems in construction could be most easily solved by combining old style elements with modern technique in a relatively free manner. This combination of old with new had been spreading through the arts since the Renaissance, first manifesting itself in neoclassicism which drew upon the ancient greek and roman styles, and later in romanticism which referred to the architectural design of the middle- and early modern-ages. Some artists strove for completely faithful reconstruction, by building in a "pure" neoroman,replicas de relojes neorenaissance or neobaroque style.

   Other artists tried to mix the basic forms of the great periods, but the developing eclecticism - with a few important exceptions - came to an impasse. This sampling of historical architectural forms in time compromised the integrity of the building, rendering it incapable of faithfully representing human values or expressing a lasting message. The unanimous opinion of art historians and thousands of visitors alike is that the Parliament designed by Imre Steindl is one of the happy exceptions of historical eclecticism.

The style of the exterior recalls Gothic Revival, which developed in England in the 1830's. A foremost example of this style is Ch. Barry's and A.W. Pugin's masterpiece, the Parliament in London. Steindl too was unafraid to introduce new elements where the functionality of the building required. For instance, he introduced a form almost unknown in gothic, the dome, and placed it at the core of his monumental work. Similarly, when organizing the internal spaces he utilized principles borrowed from renaissance and baroque - the greatest example being the main staircase which leads to the dome. "I didn't want to create a new architectural style for the Parliament," he confessed upon accepting his academic chair, "because I couldn't balance a building that has to stand for hundreds of years with ephemeral details. I have tried modestly and carefully, as is required by art, to bring a national and unique spirit to this magnificent medieval style." On 12 October 1885 ground was broken on the quay at Töm? square in the Lipót district. With an average of 1000 workers laboring at any one time, the building took 17 years to complete. It was the greatest investment of the time. Because the builders strove to use - whenever possible - Hungarian materials, Hungarian techniques, and Hungarian master craftsmen, entire industries flourished. The total cost ballooned from 18.5 million to 38 million gold crowns. Around 176,000 cubicmeters of earth was moved and 40 million bricks were used. In addition, more than half a million ornamental stones were carved for the wall decorations. (Unfortunately, the soft limestone employed quickly began to corrode and is now being constantly replaced by harder stone.) The building is 268 m long, 123 m wide across the center,replicas relojes has a dome 96 m high and covers 18,000 square meters of surface area and 473,000 cubic meters of space. The building stands on a 2-5 m thick gigantic concrete foundation. 90 statues and the coats-of-arms of various cities and counties adorn the exterior while on the inner walls can be found 152 statues and motives of national fauna. Nearly 40 kg of 22-23 karat gold was used for decorations.

The building has 27 gates, 29 interior staircases and 13 personal and service elevators. Around 50 five story apartment buildings could fit into the Parliament which gives the vistor a notion of its size. Aesthetically the main facade faces the Danube, but the offical main entrances lies on Kossuth square. The building with its symmetrical structure conforms to the functions of a bicameral parliament. Just like the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., the northern and southern wings of the building each serves one house of the legislature. They are connected by an enormous dome hall, which was once the site of unified sessions. Since the end of World War II the building has also been the host of the executive branch. The northern wing houses the offices of the Prime Minister, while the southern wing contains those of the Pesident of the Republic. And in the corner rooms of the northern wing the Speaker of the Parliament has his offices.

The Main Staircase

On either side of the exterior stairs tourists are welcome by the lion statues of Béla Markup. Though the originals were destroyed in the war, they were reformed by József Somogyi. Those touring Parliament, however, enter though gate number XII on the corridor parallel with the main facade, and proceed to the main interior staircase, where they begin their tour of Parliament.

The main staircase sweeping from the main entrance to the Dome Hall is one of the most brilliant architectural creations of Steindl. Extremely imposing are the dimensions of the main staircase occupying nearly the entire width of the interior room from the landing to the dome. Deservedly a bronze bust of the architect, cast by Alajos Stróbl, was set into the left marble wall in 1904. Imre Steindl inherited a love of handicraft from his jeweler father. When he was a student of Friedrich Schmidt - the outstanding master of neogothic - in Vienna, he didn't forget his years of apprenticeship as a mason. Even as a professor at the university he was not ashamed to take trowel in hand to introduce his students to the mysteries of art restoration. Of the columns supporting the ceiling of the main stair hall 8 stand out. The deep red granite columns are 6 m in height and weight 4 tons each. They originate from Sweden and all 8 were cut from the same cliff face. Statues of pages, holding the coronation symbols, look down upon the stairs. They are made from cast-zinc and, in a somewhat forced fashion, are reminiscent of the mannerisms of painted gothic wooden figures. On the ceiling three allegorical frescoes by Károly Lotz enable the visitor to understand the concepts embodied by the hall. closest to the entrance "The Apotheoses of the Legislation" can be seen. It depicts a thousand years of the rule of law in Hungary. On the column rising middle of the picture Hungary's most famous laws can be read. (It is perhaps no accident that these laws begin with the Austrian- Hungarian Compromise of 1867.) The ancient looking plinth is decorated by a relief showing the blood compact of the seven ancient tribal chiefs. In the hands of the figures appear the Hungarian crown and the coat-of-arms.

The subject of the second painting is the "Glorification of Hungary" also containing unambiguous historical references. At the feet of the woman holding the coat-of-arms is István Széchenyi on the left and Pet?fi Sándor on the right. Pet?fi, posed as he is in the memorable statue by Adolf Huszár, is leading an enthusiastic crowd who are dressed is Hungarian clothing and waving Hungarian flags. The third picture shows the Hungarian "middle coat-of-arms" - the unified heraldic symbol of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Transylvania, Fiume and Hungary - supported by angels.

The Dome Hall

Reaching the top of the stairs, the visitor enters the Dome Hall whose 16 corners amplify the sensation of space. It is true that the inside ceiling is much lower than the outside cupola, but this ingenious structure gives the feeling that this 27 m high round room is imposingly high. This splendid hall is the structural and spiritual heart of the building, and on occasion hosted the combined sessions of both houses of Parliament. Together with the main entrance, this was one of the first parts of the building to be finished, so that in 1896 Parliament could hold its festival session for the millenium celebrations. The statues and coats-of-arms of 16 rulers which are placed around the interior of the Dome Hall provide the admiring visitor with a brief history lesson. Opposite the main stairs the series starts with the chieftain Árpád and proceeds clockwise with St. Stephen, St. Ladislaus, Könyves Kálmán, András II, Béla IV, Louis the Great, János Hunyadi and Mátyás Hunyadi. Then follows the Transylvanian princes, István Báthory, lstván Bocskai, Gábor Bethlen. The final three figures are Habsburg rulers, Charles IIl, Maria Theresa and Leopold II. These royal statues, as well as their companion pieces in the longues, halls and corridors, are works of the most famous Hungarian sculptures of the day. Besides the already mentioned cast-zinc, pyrogranite was used - the latest curiosity from the Vilmos Zsolnay ceramics factory in Pécs. Pyrogranite proved to be ideal for covering exterior walls and it is on these that many of the stylized depictions of the national flora appear. But as a basic material for statues - as critics have noted for the last 90 years - it wasn't the most fortunate choice. "Misshapen figures with parrot colors, misnamed statues," grunted Zoltán Pap, a deputy in 1902 who complained that the vivid colors only emphasized the conventionality of their form. Besides the material, a bigger problem was the boring monotonity of the modeling. Although the criticism is not unfounded, the statues have been from the very beginning special, indispensable components of the atmosphere of "The House of the Motherland". Marble tablets at the sides of the columns in the Dome Hall represent the national memory. These four marble tablets commemorate the building of Parliament, the celebration of the millenium of the conquest, details from St. Stephen's exhortations and perhaps as a sort of compensation since as the leader of the most powerful anti-Habsburg rebellion his place should have been among the rulers - a dedication to the glorious memory of Ferenc Rákóczi II.

Rooms Around the Dome Hall

Fascinating rooms surround the Dome Hall from the Danube side. Opposite the main staircase is Hunter Nall, the great dining hall of Parliament, decorated on the riverside by a colonnaded terrace. The fresco on the southern wall, the portrayal of the two Hun brotherkings, Buda and Attila, engaged in the princely pastime of bison hunting. A work by Aladár K?rösf?i-Kreisch, commemorates János Arany's beautiful verse: "The cry of the hunt sounds in the valley Nowhere on land, nowhere in the sky Does a wild beast remain." Someone wishing to enjoy a more peaceful sight need merely to turn to the northern side of the room where a fresco showing a fishing party on Lake Balaton can be admired. This work, an outstanding representative of the Hungarian secessionist style, depicts Tihany Peninsula with the Benedictine Abbey. In the foreground the monks directing the fishing net represent a thousand year old tradition of Hungarian history - the silent workers underpinning civilization's achievements. On the ceiling Viktor Tardos-Kenner painted the allegorical figures of Reaping, Harves and Abundance. On the entrance wall Béla Spányi painted five famous Hungarian castles. The first is in the center of the Hunyadi ancestral estate - Vajdahunyad Castle; the next is Árva Castle, recalling Thurzo and Thököly; in the middle is the Anjou and Hunyadi castle at Visegrád (this is the only castle which is within the borders of modern Hungary); then comes Klissa, a famous Dalmatian fort of an order of German knights; and finally, Máté Csák's citadel at Trencsén. From the corners of Hunter Hall two smaller rooms open out. The southern room plays host to the deputies' cafeteria and the northern - the Tapestry Room - houses press conferences. It was in the 1920's that the 9 X 3 meter tapestry which gives the room its name was hung here. The tapestry, designed by Gyula Rudnay and completed in two years by thirty weavers was inspired by the lines of Anonymus, a chronicler at the court of King Béla. "The leader and his nobles have made all the rules and laws of the country," he wrote. "The place where all of these were done was named by the Hungarians in their own tounge - Szeri, because there they proclaimed all the things of the country." Even though it is more than likely that the conquerors never actually held a session at Pusztaszer, the ingenious explanation given by Anonymus for the name of this locality is a perfect symbol for the birth of Hungarian constitutionalism.

The Deputy Council Chamber and the Lounge the Deputies

As the visitor arrives from the main stairs and stops in the middle of the Dome Hall, under the rose candelabra, she will have a magnificent view of the functional structure of the building. The view through the open doors at the end of both sides opens directly on to the Speaker's lectern in each of the two session rooms. Since December 1944 the Hungarian legislature has been monocameral. As there is only legislative body, the former session room of the Upper House is now used for holding international conferences. Turning first to the southern side, the visitor comes upon the Deputy Council Chamber, where the Hungarian legislature sits today. On the way to the chamber the visitor must first cross the lounge .

This room, instead of being the site for a fruitful exchange of views between the deputies (these are held today mostly in the corridors), is used by the press. The statues are allegorical symbols of the technical sciences and a few important branches of industry and commerce. Historians consider it a symptom of the cultural politics of this period that, in the execution of the paintings in the Parliament, a disproportionately large role was accorded to Zsigmond Vajda, who was a painter of more modest talents. In this room some of his rather crowded compositions depict images from the Hun-Magyar legendary world - the Mythical Stag, Attila's Sword, Buda's Death and Emese's Dream. At the end of the lounge, on the other side of a short corridor, is the Deputy Council Chamber .

Through the ogive arch of windows a gentle light shines evenly over the entire space of the most important room in the building. (The room is 25 m deep, 23 m in length and 17 m high at its extremes.) The warm brown of the Slavonian oak, a deservedly famous building and decoration material, gives the room its color. Inside the acoustically superb council chamber are 438 specially designed leather chairs for the deputies, while the velvet-upholstered seats in the inner circle are reserved for the ministers of the government. The middle area opening off of the Speaker's lectern is slightly recessed to accommodate a table for the shorthand writers. Formerly, the junior-clerk of the Parliament placed here the summary of a thousand years of legislative activity - the volumes of the Corpus Juris. The Speaker and the clerks sit on a platform which is raised for acoustical reasons. In the middle carving of the Speaker's lectern is a bullethole, made when a pistol was fired at the Speaker, István Tisza, who had been grossly violating the internal rules of the Parliament. On 4 June 1912 a would-be assassin attempted to prevent Tisza from pursuing illegal and violent measures aimed at bringing an end to the opposition's filibustering which was paralyzing the work of thf The House. opposition felt that they needn't keep to the rules of parliamentary etiquette in the presence of a majority which had won the elections by manipulation. After his failed attempt the assailant turned the gun against himself, and the unharmed Speaker continued the session. There were other equally dramatic moments in the Parliament from the breaking of furniture to the removal of deputies by the police. This is why "stormbells" were placed behind the Speaker's lectern on both sides. But it is not these horrible shrill bells which keep the peace but rather the lofty statues representing Harmony, Peace and Wisdom which calm the souls of the statesmen. But if truth be told, standing between these gilded figures are those of Glory, Eloquence and War. Above the Speaker's lectern is placed the middle coat-of-arms, while on either side of the actual lectern are tempera paintings by Zsigmond Vajda. The one on the left shows the symbolic birth of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy - the crowning as Hungarian king of Franz Joseph, the man who sent the martyrs of Arad to the gallows after putting down the Revolution of 1848. The other picture is much more important however. Here, too, there is a Habsburg - a cousin of Franz Joseph - but in a completely different role.

The picture portrays a significant moment in Hungarian parliamentary history: Palatine István on 5 July 1848 opening the first session of the first Hungarian popular representative assembly. Of course, tendentious legend and romantic pipe-dreams maintain that the origins of the institution of parliament date back a thousand years to when the Magyar tribes first conquered the Carpathian basin. Current research has been able to determine with a high degree of certainty what kind of institutions of his own time Anonymus, who was attempting to descrive events that occurred nearly 200 years before, introduced into his depiction of the blood compact as well as into his explanation for the place name, Pusztaszer (recall the Tapesty Room). In the history of the Middle Ages numerous different types of national assemblies or gatherings can be found all over Europe. Of these the most important in Hungary as well - was the royal council governing the early feudal state. The make-up of these powerful judicial and governmental assembly sessions was gradually broadened to include not just the prelates and barons but in some way or another representatives of other groups in society. Often it was a war council that provided the occasion for an assembly, at other times a church council. For example, at the famous Council of Szabolcs hosted by King Saint Ladislaus 1 in 1092, decisions were made with the cooperation of secular figures, prelates and representatives of the people.

A true national assembly can only be born of such gatherings if the concept of country or state already exists. In other words, the state must be more that just the king's person; it must encompass as well a community which is made up of smaller groupings possessing political rights. A thorough examination of documents from the Middle Ages shows that these groupings - the estates - formulated the body of their rights and interest under the influence of rediscovered Roman law and with the help of shifting canon law. Solid research of the last several years indicates that besides Hispania, England, some areas of Scandinavia, and a small Italian princedom, the Friaul-Aquileia patriarchate, Hungary developed the earliest - in the decades between 1270 and 1300 - institutions based on the estates. In 1277 on Rákos field, members of the country held an assembly at which prelates, barons, nobles and the kuns all participated. The nobles - most of whom had been subservient to the King, gaining rights only with the proclamation of the Golden Bull in 1222 - were, of course, far from being staunch supporters of the throne in the power struggle against the provincial lords. In any case, laws enacted by the national assemblies of 1290 and 1298 show clearly that the group of Hungarian prelates and church intellectuals organizing the institutions of the early estate system not only stood at the leading edge of European legal and political culture but were also attempting, in full awareness of their responsibility, to direct the fate of a country foundering in anarchy in the final days of the Árpád dynasty. During the time of the Anjous the memory of these early estate institutions faded. The sporadically held assemblies of this period did not themselves write laws but merely passed those drawn up by the king. It was not until the first half of the l5th century, towards the end of Zsigmond's reign and during the time of Ulászló I and primarily during the governance of János Hunyadi, that feudal monarchy stabilized. At its center in Hungary was the institutional system of feudal assemblies, aiding the king while at the same time constrained by law. At this time a new grouping, the burghers - fourth in importance - gained the right to have their representatives participate in legislation, the enactment of taxes, declarations of war and peace negotiations, occasionally the election of the palatine and other high-ranking officials, judicial processes, and other national assembly work. Finally in 1608 a law was passed to confirm the century-old common law, according to which the prelates and the barons sat personally in the upper chamber, while chosen delegates of the counties, the free royal cities, the free territories and the chapters conducted the business of the country in the lower chamber. From the end of the l8th century the intellectual program of the Enlightenment, the philosophical and political formulation of man's right to personal autonomy, made new demands on Hungarian legislation. If every man is equal at birth then not just the privileged but all men are full members of the "country". The serfs and the millions in the lower classes must at once "be included into the sanctity of the Constitution" ; they, too, must win representation in the national assembly. This became one of the most important demands of the reformers in the bourgeois transformation of Hungarian society, which was triggered by the economic and social crises of the time. This objective of the program for the bourgeois transformation of the state structure - that is, the creation of popular representation in the county and national assemblies - was organically complemented by the other fundament of a true parliament, the rapid introduction of responsible government. Many important details of this dual problem were formulated in the 1790's by József Hajnóczy, one of Hungary's most important bourgeois thinkers. In the early 1830's in the fight for larger steps towards the gradual introduction of true representation and responsible government, Miklós Wesselényi and Ferenc Kölcsey, as well as the young Lajos Kossuth who later played a huge role in the creation of a modern bourgeois public, elevated to a political program the reconciliation of the interests of the nobles and the serfs. It was Kossuth who was the most vehement representative within the liberal reform opposition headed by Ferenc Deák and Lajos Batthyány in the 1840's of the view that, despite the position and influence of the privileged estates in the court at Vienna, only through broadening the reform of popular representation could the national assembly bring to a victorious conclusion its "homeland and progress" campaign. Though it was the Revolution in the Spring of 1848 that fnally made it possible, it was really as a result of the passionate battles of the preceding decades that Acts on popular representation and responsible government were finally adopted. And it is on this legal basis that today's national assembly functions as well. Zsigmond Vajda's painting then - returning to the Deputy Council Chamber - depicts the opening of the first parliament which represents free citizens (even if their number was restricted by assets and educational preconditions) instead of the privileged estates. For the first time in Hungarian history executive power had rights delimited by constitutional responsibility. The painting was styled on a lithograph by József Borsos and August Pettenkofen. To the side of the Palatine and the central group from the Batthyány Government are famous liberal politicians authentically portrayed.

The Old Upper House Hall and the Lounge

Opposite the Deputy Council Chamber, to the right of the Dome Hall in the northern wing is the successor to the chamber of the privileged estates, the Clpper House. The walls and the carpet of the longue are colored blue. The statues are allegorical depictions of agricultural and industrial branches.

The paintings on the ceiling , also works of Zsigmond Vajda, have historical subjects: St. Ladislaus finding medicinal herbs; Könyves Kálmán prohibiting the burning of witches; St. Stephen welcoming the monk Astrik who is bringing him the crown; the apotheoses of the Holy Cross; King Mátyás dispensing justice; and Louis the Great ordering the building of the church at Kassa. In a curious addition to this last painting the artist included a portrait of not just himself but of the dome's restorer, lmre Steindl.

Due to the symmetry of the building the Upper House Hall is just as imposing as the Deputy Council Chamber. After the war it was restored but not to its original state. They did preserve, however, the brown-gold shine of the interior and the original gilded cast statues: Science, Power, Truth, Criticism, Faith and Charity. The paintings of Mátyás Jantyik, while new, retain the political content of the originals. Just as in the Deputy Council Chamber the theme of the independent Hungarian heritage dominates. Here it manifests itself in a composition about the proclamation of the Golden Bull, while loyalty to the Habsburgs is represented by a depiction of the oath to the young Maria Theresia, offering military protection for her throne.

The Delegation Room and Corridor

Exiting the council rooms a visitor may take a variety of paths to reach a part of the main staircase - near the entrance - not yet discussed. Along the way can be seen the beautiful window compositions of Miksa Róth, one of the premier glass painters of the fin-de-siécle.

A glance should be reserved for the decorated gratings of the heating system, which maintains a constant temperature in the building. Technical knowledge is married to practical ingenuity in the corridors where numbered ashtrays allow the deputies to dash into the council chamber to vote without having to stub out their scented Havannas. The corridor of the Delegation Room is decorated with the paintings of Andor Dudits, symbolizing the main ministries: Defence, Religion and Culture, Justice, Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce. Formerly the offices of the ministers opened off this corridor (e.g. the office of the Speaker of the Parliament was once the office of the Minister of Religion and Culture). This large room above the main entrance got its name during the Dual Monarchy when 120 individuals, delegations of 60 persons each from each Parliament, exercised supervision over the common ministries (Defence, Foreign Affairs and Finance). During the sessions held in Pest the Austrian partners admired the central work of Master Dudits' youth, the painting covering the western wall. The moment of the sword stroke at the coronation of Franz Joseph in 1867 is today more a symbol of the illusions of the past than of the achievements of that "social order". The most remarkable feature of the former room of the Council of Ministries, which opens from the southern end of the corridor, is the ceiling paintings of Károly Lotz, "Fortitude" and "Wisdom" - his most outstanding works in the Parliament.

The President of the Republic's Receptions Rooms

Today the two extreme wings of the Parliament house the offices of the country's most important public personages. The northern wing is for the Prime Minister, while the southern is reserved for the President of the Republic. Two noteworthy rooms open from the President's offices. In one of them is the "Apotheoses of Hungarian Rulers", a group of paintings done between the two world wars by Géza Udvary and Antal Diósy. On the longer wall, Udvary represented the victorious János Hunyadi listening to the noontime bells, tolling according to the Pope's decree in honor of Hunyadi's victory against the Turks near Nándorfehérvár, today called Belgrade - hence the title of the room, the Nándorfehérvár Hall. On the northern wall Udvary painted the apotheoses of Lajos Kossuth with Pet?fi, Bem and Damjanich, all heroes of the 1848 Revolution.

The Munkácsy Room, opening from the President's office, houses the most precious work of art in the Parliament. "The Conquest" , which Munkácsy, who was living in Paris at the time, originally intended for the Deputy Council Chamber, ended up in this room because among other things the Speaker's lectern had to be raised for acoustical reasons. More importantly many deputis protested that Mihály Munkácsy represented the first meeting between the conquerors and the original inhabitants of the region as a peaceful greeting and not as a victorious submission. It took twenty years after the completion of the work for it to placed here.

The Parliament Library

There is not a parliament in the world which does not have a libray of its own. A sound decision requires a wealth of information, a purpose served by the Parliament Library. This first-rate institution serves more than just the deputies. It functions as a national library as well, specializing in law, recent history, U.N. publications and, of course, in parliamentarianism. The Information and Documentation Centre of the Council of Europe is situated here as well. (The documents of the Parliament are adminsitered by Archives.) Access to the half million volumes is facilitated by numerous informational systems. The massive reading room is situated under Hunter Hall.

Sightseeing Tours: Visiting the Hungarian Parliament

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